In practice, the majority of surfaces requiring suction are not air-tight. If the material is porous or the surface is rough, it is inevitable that air will escape into the vacuum through the material or under the edges of the suction pad. In this situation, a high flow of vacuum must be maintained to compensate for air leaks and to maintain gripping. This can be done economically and efficiently at a low level of vacuum.
Within the recommended vacuum range of 30% to 80%, two distinct zones must be distinguished, depending on the nature of the object to be gripped.
1 - Porous materials
The 30 to 55% vacuum zone is both economical and efficient, given the amount of vacuum flow required. The suction pads should be of the appropriate size to obtain the required gripping efforts.
2 - Air-tight surfaces
In this case, the 55 to 80% zone gives excellent results. The resulting effort is higher (curves opposite), so that more compact suction pads may be used.